Volume 12

Number 02 July 2022
Risk Factors for the Development of Pneumonia Below 2 Years of Age

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47648/jswmc2022v12-02-50

*Khan HJ , Hasan SD , Azad T , Dev A , Das AC , Chowdhury TJ


Acute respiratory tract illness is the leading cause of death in the developing countries. This case control study was endeavored with an aim to assess the factors that can increase the risk of pneumonia in children. Methodology: This Case-Control study was carried out at the Paediatrics Department of Jalalabad RagibRabeya Medical College Hospital (JRRMCH) in Sylhet from January 2018 to July 2018.This study involved 200 children of 6 to 24 months age, among them 100 children who was hospitalized in JRRMCH for pneumonia during the study period as case. The control group included 100 children who was selected purposively came for immunization at JRRMCH EPI centre and at OPD for other problem but free from pneumonia. Sample were selected according to the inclusion & exclusion criteria. A case definition for pneumonia as outlined by the WHO(2014) was used as the criteria for case inclusion. Children with history of low birth weight, congenital cardiovascular or respiratory malformation, chromosomal abnormalities, recurrent wheeze, were excluded from the study. Data were collected by interviews of the parents using a structured questionnaire. Pneumonia (a child with cough or difficult breathing and fast breathing and or chest in-drawing with recently developed radiological pulmonary shadowing)1 affected 100 children included in case group and 100 children free of pneumonia included in control group. SPSS version 22 were used to analyze the data. Independent sample‘t’ test and Chi (x2 ) square test were done. Results: Residential area, socio-economic status, maternal education, H/A score, formula feeding, types of complimentary feeding, passive smoking, birth order >2, family member, crowding index and birth spacing are significantly associated with development of pneumonia. Conclusion: Children belonged to rural area, poor maternal education, low socio-economic status, stunting height for age, formula feeding, types of complimentary feeding, exposure to passive smoking, birth order>2, birth spacing, family member and crowding index were significantly (p<0.05) associated with pneumonia.